International journal of life sciences https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>IJLS</strong>&nbsp;is published in English and it is open to authors around the world regardless of the nationality. It is currently published three times a year, i.e. in&nbsp;<em>April</em>,&nbsp;<em>August</em>, and&nbsp;<em>December</em>.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Articles published in the <em>International Journal of Life Sciences&nbsp;</em>(<strong>IJLS</strong>)&nbsp;are available under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives Licence (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC-ND 4.0</a>). Authors retain copyright in their work and grant <strong>IJLS&nbsp;</strong>right of first publication under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles in this journal, and to use them for any other lawful purpose.</p> <p>Articles published in <strong>IJLS&nbsp;</strong>can be copied, communicated and shared in their published form for non-commercial purposes provided full attribution is given to the author and the journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (<em>e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book</em>), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>This copyright notice applies to articles published in <strong>IJLS&nbsp;</strong>volumes 4 onwards. Please read about the copyright notices for previous volumes under&nbsp;<a href="https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/history">Journal History</a>.</p> ijls@utm.edu.ec (Prof. Dr. Antonio Vazquez Perez) ss.support@utm.edu.ec (Vedran Vucic) Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Social implications of biomass-based energy generation in the technical university of Manabí, Ecuador https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/386 <p style="text-align: justify;">Biomass as an energy source will play a fundamental role in the coming years. The versatility of biomass-based generation systems makes them attractive projects at any scale. At the Technical University of Manabí, large quantities of organic and forest residues are generated, which can be used to generate energy. A survey was applied to determine the level of knowledge of the university community on issues related to the energy use of biomass and solid waste management. The results show that there is a knowledge gap in the community and it will be necessary, if such a system is implemented, to train all those involved in the generation, handling and disposal of solid waste to strengthen the proposal.</p> Carlos Alejandro Bowen Quiroz, María Rodríguez Gámez, Ciaddys Gina Rodriguez Borges, Jesús Alberto Pérez Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/386 Sun, 02 Feb 2020 06:55:13 +0000 Institutional development of coconut agribusiness in North Sulawesi Province https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/385 <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to identify the conditions and institutional role of coconut agribusiness in North Sulawesi; formulate a strategy model for institutional development of coconut agribusiness in North Sulawesi Province. The study was conducted in the highest coconut producing area in North Sulawesi with qualitative methods supported by quantitative data through the use of Structural Conduct Performance (SCP) analysis and Interpretative Structural Modeling analysis. The technique for determining informants is purposive sampling. The grand theory in this research is institutional theory and agribusiness theory. The coconut agribusiness institution in North Sulawesi identified several types that play a role, namely: farmer groups, transportation businesses, universities, banks, cooperatives, field extension workers (ppl), collectors, middlemen, industries, wholesalers and village regulations. Strategies and programs for developing coconut agribusiness institutions in North Sulawesi that refer to the role of tertiary institutions as key sub-elements of the institutional elements involved: a. Training for farmers and institutions involved in coconut agribusiness; b. Provision of experts in running a coconut agribusiness business unit; c. Assistance in each coconut agribusiness business unit.</p> Stella Maria Pingkan Paendong, Made Antara, Ketut Budi Susrusa, I Ketut Suamba ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/385 Sun, 02 Feb 2020 10:12:18 +0000 The effect of giving betel leaf extract (piper betel l.) on the production and quality of broiler carcasses https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/373 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to learn the effect of giving betel leaf extract (<em>Piper Betel</em> L.) on the production and quality of broiler carcasses. The experiment design used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three treatments and ten replicates, with two broiler aged 2 weeks. The treatments were broiler chicken given drinking water without of betel leaf extract as control (A), broiler gave 2% extract of betel leaf water through drinking water (B), and broiler gave a 4% extract of betel leaf water through drinking water (C). The variables observed in this study were performance, digestibility of nutrients, total stool bacteria. The results showed that the granting extract of betel leaf through drinking water showed no significantly different (P&gt;0,05) on ration consumption, drinking water consumption, body weight gain, <em>Feed Conversion Ratio</em> (FCR), body initial weight, final weight, percentage carcass, percentage meat, percentage fat and skin, bone weight, meat born to, digestibility of dry matter, digestibility of protein and digestibility of energy but significant difference (P&lt; 0.05) of carcass weight, <em>Total Plate Count (</em>TPC<em>), coliform,</em> and<em> E.Coly</em>.</p> Ermelia Maria F. R. Lodang, Gusti Ayu Mayani Kristina Dewi, I Made Nuriyasa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/373 Tue, 04 Feb 2020 03:29:42 +0000 Agribusiness development model for strengthening the chili-tobacco intercropping farmer group https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/387 <p style="text-align: justify;">The objectives of this study are (1) to analyze the influence of the procurement and distribution subsystems of production facilities for strengthening the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in Bali Province; (2) analyzing the influence of farming subsystems for strengthening the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in Bali Province; (3) analyzing the effect of post-harvest handling and further processing subsystems for strengthening the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in Bali Province; (4) analyze the effect of the yield marketing subsystem to strengthen the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in Bali Province; (5) analyzing the effect of supporting services subsystems for strengthening the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in Bali Province; and (6) designing an agribusiness system development model that is suitable for strengthening the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in the Province of Bali. The methodology uses Smart PLS analysis and the SAST (Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing) method in determining the implementation of activity level needs for farmer groups.</p> I Nengah Surata Adnyana, Dwi Putra Darmawan, I Wayan Windia, I Ketut Suamba ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/387 Fri, 07 Feb 2020 07:45:38 +0000 Growth-development peculiarities of some rare and endangered plants in nature and culture https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/390 <p style="text-align: justify;">The article covers information on the following species of rare endemic and relict plants of the narrow local area that are included in the “Red Data” book of Georgia:&nbsp; <em>Taxus baccata</em> L.<em>,</em><em> Pinus pityusa</em> Stev.,, &nbsp;<em>Acer ibericum</em> M. Bieb.,, <em>Betula litwinowii</em> Doluch., <em>Berberis iberica</em> Stev. &amp; Fisch.ex DC., <em>Ostrya carpinifolia</em> Scop., <em>Diospyros lotus</em> L., <em>Quercus dshorochensis</em> K.Koch., <em>Q. Hartwissiana</em> Steven., <em>Q.imericna</em> Steven ex Woronow, <em>Q.macranthera</em> Fisch. &amp; C.A.Mey.ex Hohen, <em>Pterocarya pterocarpa</em> (Michx) kunth., <em>Punica granatum</em> L., <em>Amygdalus Georgia </em>Desf., <em>Pyrus sachokiana</em> Kuth., <em>Populus euphratica</em> Oliv, <em>Ulmus suberosa </em>Michx., <em>Zelkova carpinifolia</em> (Pall.,) K.Koch. Their biological peculiarities, duration of flowering and fruit-bearing, the similarity of seeds and their quality have been studied under the conditions of arid zone. The paper also gives a description of cambiogenetic growth nature that is a secondary meristem of 1-3-year-old spurs of these plants from the beginning till the end of their vegetation.</p> Tamar Nadiradze ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/390 Sat, 08 Feb 2020 11:19:33 +0000 Cocoa drying system using ancestral sliding https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/392 <p style="text-align: justify;">The decrease in the application of ancestral practices such as the drying of cocoa in traditional slides is a problem that affects small grain producers in terms of the price of the product, which is mostly sold in slime. It is intended to design an ancestral slide for cocoa drying so that ancestral knowledge of cocoa drying is recovered by promoting a fair price for cocoa that benefited for small producers. An experimental field methodology was applied. Results were obtained in 24 hours of drying light 7% humidity at an average temperature of 34º C, a parameter that allows preserving the quality of the grain during storage and without risk of deterioration due to the appearance of fungi. A solar-powered dryer was traditionally called slides used by small producers of cocoa in the province, where they can use materials from their environment and obtaining a dryer with a capacity, drying hours and percentage of humidity similar to the use of a dryer with conventional energy, without paying for the grain drying service in an industrial dryer.</p> Ingri Catherine García Castro, Telly Yarita Macías Zambrano ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/392 Mon, 10 Feb 2020 07:32:16 +0000 Consumption, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in pe goats received ransum with various levels of gamal (gliricidiasepium) balance versus concentrate https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/380 <p style="text-align: justify;">The research aims to determine the consumption, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in PE goats, which has been carried out in Sidemen Village, Karangasem, Bali and in the Lab. Animal Nutrition and Feed at Udayana University. The research design used was the Latin Square Design (LSD) with treatment consisting of (P1) 55% field grass with 45% concentrate; (P2) 55% field grass with 15% Gamal and 30% concentrate; (P3) 55% field grass with 30% Gamal and 15% concentrate; (P4) 55% field grass with 45% Gamal. Research variables include consumption, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention. The results showed the consumption of dry matter and crude protein between treatments was not significantly different (P&gt; 0.05). Crude fiber consumption of P4 treatment was significantly (P &lt;0.05) higher than P1, but P4 was not significant (P&gt; 0.05) higher than P2 and P3. The dry matter digestibility coefficient and crude fiber digestibility coefficient between treatments were statistically significantly different (P&gt; 0.05). The digestibility coefficient of organic matter, crude protein digestion coefficient and nitrogen retention in the P1 treatment were not significantly (P&gt; 0.05) higher than P2, but P1 was significantly (P &lt;0.05) higher than P3 and P4.</p> Muh. Sofyan, I Gusti Lanang Oka Cakra, I Gusti Agung Arta Putra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/380 Mon, 10 Feb 2020 08:12:44 +0000 The properties of tagua bark (brutelephas aequatoriales spruce) for producing traditional salprieta https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/393 <p style="text-align: justify;">Manabí is a province rich in cultural traditions. Its cuisine makes it a province visited by national and foreign tourists. The salprieta is one of the delicacies that identify the province, however the tradition of making salprieta is being lost, that made with tagua that despite not being so widespread became a typical dish of the areas where the crop del Cade constituted the economic support of its inhabitants (Chone, Calceta, Junín, San Plácido, Paján and Jipijapa), because from this plant many by-products are obtained such as the cade used for the construction of roofs of houses and agricultural constructions; the tagua, for the elaboration of crafts, and the bark of this one is used for food of the cattle in the form of flour; and for the elaboration of salprieta in replacement of the corn. The research problem is centered on the loss of ancestral knowledge in the peasant communities to elaborate salprieta using an available resource such as the tagua bark, available raw material that is not used due to ignorance, whose nutritional properties are excellent, as we indicate the tables attached to the document.</p> Luisana Agustina De La Cruz Zambrano, Gisselle Yaritza Moreira Espinoza, Stefania Lilibeth Mendoza Meza, Verónica Dolores Palma Mendoza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/393 Wed, 12 Feb 2020 12:26:35 +0000 The effect of concentrate replacement level with gamal leaf (gliricidia sepium) in ransum on rument metabolite products and blood goat profile https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/379 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to determine the effect of replacing concentrates with Gamal leaves (Gliricidia sepium) in the ration on the product and the performance of rumen metabolites and the blood profile of PE goats. The experimental design used was the Latin square design, 4 x 4 that is 4 treatments with four 4 replications each experiment unit consisted of 1 animal. One treatment period for 2 weeks. The first week was adapted and the second week the data collection process was carried out. The treatment given is as follows. The treatments are A (45% concentrate and 55% field grass); B (Gamal 15% with 30% concentrate and 55% field grass); C (Gamal 30% with 15% concentrate and 55% field grass); D (Gamal 45% and field grass 55%). The results of this study indicate that the effect of the rate of replacement of concentrates with Gamal leaves (Gliricidia sepium) in the ration on rumen metabolite products PE goat was significantly different (P &lt;0.05) total VFA concentration and VFA Parcial. The concentration of N-NH3, protozoan population the acidity of pH, methane production showed results that were not significantly different.</p> Sigit Perdana, I Gusti Lanang Oka Cakra, I Gede Mahardika ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/379 Thu, 13 Feb 2020 05:44:47 +0000 Traditional knowledge using medicinal plants in Portoviejo Canton https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/394 <p style="text-align: justify;">The problem centers on the loss of empirical knowledge of the use of medicinal plants as a source of alternative medicine. The objective of the work is to carry out a study aimed at establishing the current state of local knowledge about the use of medicinal plants in rural parishes and 1 urban one of the Portoviejo canton. The method was based on the literature review on the subject and as techniques, the population survey was used on the knowledge and importance of medicinal plants. The main results of the research included the recovery of the use of medicinal plants as an alternative medicine use. As a result, it was obtained that the inhabitants of these parishes of average age between 35-59 years, had a high impact on the applied surveys of 39.1% of the use of medicinal plants and that the lowest ignorance of the use of medicinal plants as an alternative in medicine it was obtained by people of average age between 60 and over, but this is due to memory loss. It is concluded that knowledge about medicinal plants is regular since their inhabitants do not maintain continuity in their use.</p> Valeria Briggete Baque Anchundia, Víctor Manuel Anchundia Mendoza, María Andreina Cevallos Piloso, Milton Manuel Vega Játiva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/394 Thu, 13 Feb 2020 09:39:25 +0000