International Journal of Life Sciences https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>IJLS</strong>&nbsp;is published in English and it is open to authors around the world regardless of the nationality. It is currently published three times a year, i.e. in&nbsp;<em>April</em>,&nbsp;<em>August</em>, and&nbsp;<em>December</em>.&nbsp;</p> Universidad Tecnica de Manabi en-US International Journal of Life Sciences 2550-6994 Nutrient digestion and body weight gain of Balinese cows getting basic ration of spear grass and rosewood leaves supplemented with falcata tree leaves https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/114 <p style="text-align: justify;">A study had been conducted to find out nutrient digestion and body weight gain of Balinese cows getting a basic ration of spear grass and Rosewood leaves supplemented with Falcata tree leaves. The study was using complete randomized block design with 4 ration treatments and 3 times repetition. Each repetition was using three Balinese cows. The weights of cows being used were in the range of 83-181 kg. Basic ration being given was arranged based on the percentage of dry ingredients namely: 80% of spear grass + 20% of rosewood leaves (A), 80% of spear grass + 20% of rosewood leaves + 10% of falcata tree leaves (B), 80% of spear grass + 20% of rosewood leaves + 15% of falcata tree leaves (C), and&nbsp; 80% of spear grass + 20% of rosewood leaves + 20% of falcata tree leaves (D), The variables being measured were: nutrient digestion and body weight gain. The result of the study showed that with the administration of 20% falcata tree leaves in the basic ration, it differed significantly (P&lt;0.05) in increasing nutrient digestion and daily weight gain. The result of the study concluded that with the administration of falcata tree leaves in the basic ration of spear grass and rosewood leaves capable to increase nutrient digestion so that bacteria would optimally increase the utilization of fodder and led to a high weight gain of Balinese cows.&nbsp;</p> Stefanus Sio Hilarius Yosep Sikone Charles Asar Usboko ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2018-05-02 2018-05-02 2 2 1 11 10.29332/ijls.v2n2.114 Gelatin characteristics of Bali cattle skin protein extract on acetic acid concentration and different length of curing https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/119 <p style="text-align: justify;">Gelatin Production of Bali cattle skin protein extract is an alternative to obtain permitted gelatin. The objective of the research was to know the effect of concentration and different acetic acid curing time to gelatin characteristic of the animal skin and to determine the best of the characteristic. Indicators of them were pH value, the yield of gelatin, moisture content, protein, fat, viscosity and gel strength. The extraction of Bali cattle skin protein was conducted with curing for 2; 4; and 6 days and acetic acid on concentration 2%; 4%; 6% and 8%. Statistical analyzed showed that increase of acetic acid concentration and curing time and its interaction was significant (P&lt;0.05) affected the quality of the animal skin gelatin. Index of effectiveness showed that the best treatments combination was on acetic acid concentration 8% and curing time 6 days (A4C3) in produced gelatin. Indicator of quality were yield of gelatin (11.91%); water concentration (10%); protein (88.13%); fat (0.98%) and viscosity (5.35 cP). It can be concluded that the increase of acetic acid concentration and curing time affected quantity and quality of the animal skin gelatin.</p> I Nyoman Sumerta Miwada I Ketut Sumadi Luh Putu Wrasiati I Nyoman Sutarpa Sutama ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2018-05-07 2018-05-07 2 2 12 21 10.29332/ijls.v2n2.119 Relationship between resistivity and soil strength based on geoelectric data https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/126 <p style="text-align: justify;">Geoelectric method was applied in geophysical research to know the relationship between resistivity with soil strength based on geoelectric data has been conducted at Cassa Villa Jimbaran, Badung, Bali. The study lies in the position of 8°46'50,6" LS and 115°10'02,6" BT. The data was collected by injecting an electric current inside the Earth's surface using a Wenner configuration with a path length of 148.8 meters. The data was processed using SiberTool Software to export *.d2d to *.dat file. Therefore, it can be read by Res2dinv software. The further data was processed using Res2dinv for data inversion. Thus, it was able to show the contour of the cross-section of the trajectory. The research result was obtained resistivity value at position 51.15 was 6, 40 - 11, 98 ?m. The data of the soil strength was applied Standard Penetration Test (SPT) method by drilling and taking soil samples then testing in the laboratory. The soil sample was taken at position 51.15. The soil strength test result was obtained about 6 - 5, 3 (kg/cm) ^2 at a depth of 0, 58 - 20, 0 meters. The two magnitudes were analyzed to find the relationship in the form of the two poly nomialorde y=-60,811 x^2+1433,4 x-8442,4 with correlation coefficient value 0, 9799. It means there was a correlation between resistivity values with soil strength. It is as well as to define the soil strength value can be reviewed based on resistivity especially limestone soil.</p> I Nengah Simpen Ni Putu Gita Bonita Dewi I Nyoman Aribudiman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2018-05-26 2018-05-26 2 2 22 29 10.29332/ijls.v2n2.126 Pollution with saprobic index and nutrition value coefficient of fish https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/134 <p style="text-align: justify;">Buyan Lake located in the village of Pancasari, District Sukasada, Buleleng, Bali. Lake area of 301.84 hectares located at an altitude of about 1,000 meters above sea level is one of three twin lake that forms in a large caldera. Buyan Lake is flanked by two other lakes, namely Lake Tamblingan in the west and Lake Beratan in the east. Depth Buyan alone is estimated at around 80 meters, where the depth of the lake is never reached 140 meters before the bottom of the lake due to the silting of Buyan Lake erosion. Water resource who physically looks have undergone significant environmental stress due to things like the level of the lake by the plant closure especially Eichhornia crassipes plants and other aquatic plants, Chlorophyta class consisting of 4 species, Cyanophyta class consisting of six species, one species. Pyrrophyta class at Buyan Lake has included the category of lightly polluted with saprobic coefficient ranges from 0.594 to 0.777 which is well within the range of ?-<em>mesosaprobic</em> saprobic phase. The results of the analysis of nutritional status (NVC) fish that include tilapia, fish Zebra, and Fish Nilem are as follows: Tilapia value status is nutrient is an average of 1,944 which shows the waters of Buyan Lake is still classified as clean fish Zebra average of 1.828, which means the waters Buyan Lake is still in the net category. Fish Nilem to the average value of nutritional status (NVC) is 1.376 which shows the deep waters contaminated state. At each station showed a different saprobic coefficient, the difference is still in a phase of ?-<em>mesosaprobic</em>.</p> Sang Ayu Made Putri Suryani I Wayan Arya I Made Suparta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2018-06-25 2018-06-25 2 2 30 41 10.29332/ijls.v2n2.134 Bioactive substance use of leaf extract of piper caninum blume pressing for blas disease and increase production in rice https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/156 <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bioactive substances in the leaf extract of Piper caninum against rice blast disease caused by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae. This study was conducted in a greenhouse, using a completely randomized design. The results showed that the leaf extract of P. caninum formula can significantly suppress the intensity of blast disease in rice plants. The inhibition (90.51%) contained at a concentration of 2.5%. P. caninum leaf extract also significantly affect the growth and yield components. The concentration of 2.5% provides the highest grain yield (11.43 t/ha), while the extract 3.5% the intensity of the disease has increased and yield components decreased because the rice plants begin to experience toxic due to the concentration exceeding the limit too high extract optimal.</p> Ni Luh Suriani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2018-08-07 2018-08-07 2 2 42 50 10.29332/ijls.v2n2.156 Flight behavior, development of population and attack of stone leek leafminer liriomyza chinensis kato (diptera: agromyzidae) towards five varieties of onion (allium cepa l.) https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/157 <p style="text-align: justify;">Stone leek leafminer Liriomyza Chinensis is an exotic pest that currently has become a major pest in onion plantings in the island of Bali. This study was conducted to determine the behavior of flight, population development and to analyze the level of attack of stone leek leafminer against five varieties of onion (Bima Brebes, Bauji, Tajuk, Probo and Bali Karet). The results showed that adult L. Chinensis has begun to invade the plant since the appearance of leaves of onion plants to the soil surface. The peak of the invasion occurs when the plant is 3 weeks after planting (WAP). While the most adult flight activity occurs at 08.00-11.00. The development of the adult population has begun to appear since 1 week and peaked at 3 WAP, then decreased to 5 WAP and rose again at 6 WAP then decreased to 8 weeks while the larval population began to monitor 3 WAP and peaked at 5 WAP and then decreased steadily to 8 WAP. The average percentage of stone leek leafminer attack against Bima Brebes varieties (12.91%), Bauji (9.68%), Tajuk (10.09%), Probo (9.96%) and Bali Karet (13.56%). Likewise, the average intensity of stone leek leafminer attack against Bima Brebes varieties (19.79%), Bauji (15.55%), Tajuk (16.80%), Probo (17.10%) and Bali Karet (20.20%). This shows that the five varieties of onion tested were susceptible to stone leek leafminer, but Bauji varieties tended to be more resistant to it.</p> - Hamid I Wayan Supartha I Wayan Susila I Putu Sudiarta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2018-08-07 2018-08-07 2 2 51 63 10.29332/ijls.v2n2.157 Mercury: risks and handling as hazardous waste https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/176 <p style="text-align: justify;">The handling of some chemical substances, as is the case of Mercury used in the determination of the contraction characteristics of soils, becomes dangerous waste at the end of the test process, which requires an adequate management having as a reference the established measures in the legislation and complying with the legal and applicable requirements in this matter. In the present work the characteristics of the mercury, the measures for its use, transportation, and/or storage, as well as the risks to the occupationally exposed workers, are related in the Laboratories of the Applied Research Company. The objective of this research is to raise the culture in the procedures for the handling of chemical substances and hazardous waste, in the use and care of the means of individual protection, as well as compliance with everything established in the procedures for the realization of activities related to the use of mercury to form an environmental awareness focused on achieving an excellent quality of life in the workplace and contribute to the protection of the environment.</p> Mariano Cesar Gurris Suarez Virginia Gonzalez Gonzalez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2018-08-28 2018-08-28 2 2 64 72 10.29332/ijls.v2n2.176 Increasing nutrition value of fermented rice hull through biofermentation of lactobacillus complex bacteria supplemented https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/179 <p style="text-align: justify;">An experiment was carried out to determine the nutrition value and the effect of blood antioxidant profile of Bali duck of fermented rice hull through biofermentation and supplemented with betle leaf meal. A completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments diets and four replications were used and each replicate consisted of five ducks. The treatment was diet A as control (diet without rice hull and betle leaf meal), diet B containing 10% rice hull, diet C containing 10% fermented rice hull, diet D containing10% rice hull and betle leaf meal, and diet E containing 10% fermented rice hull and betle leaf meal. The variables observed were: nutrition value of fermented rice hull, performance, and blood antioxidant profile. The results showed that fermented rice hull could improve the content of crude protein from 4.66% to 7.49%; energy extract 1.99% to 2.88%; nitrogen-free extract 8.66% to 19.01%; ash 16.41% to 23.53% and decrease the crude fiber 43.59 to 21.01%. Treatments A, B, C, D, and E were not significantly different on feed consumption (P&gt;0.05). Provision of diet E can result in the highest of ration digestibility, antioxidant capacity, and final weight (P&lt;0.05), and could increase of antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and decrease malondialdehyde (P&lt;0.05) of Bali duck blood. It could be concluded that the fermented rice hull supplemented by Piper betle could improve the nutrition value of rice hull, performance, and blood antioxidant profile of Bali ducks.</p> Ida Bagus Gaga Partama Tjokorda Gede Belawa Yadnya Anak Agung Ayu Sri Trisnadewi I Ketut Sukada ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 2 2 73 82 10.29332/ijls.v2n2.179