International journal of life sciences https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>IJLS</strong>&nbsp;is published in English and it is open to authors around the world regardless of the nationality. It is currently published three times a year, i.e. in&nbsp;<em>April</em>,&nbsp;<em>August</em>, and&nbsp;<em>December</em>.&nbsp;</p> Universidad Tecnica de Manabi en-US International journal of life sciences 2550-6994 Occupational health and safety prevention plan in water treatment plant https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/196 <p style="text-align: justify;">The research was carried out at the "El Guarumo" drinking water plant located in Santa Ana, province of Manabí, Ecuador. The objective of the investigation was the proposal of a plan of prevention of occupational risks that allows the management of the labor risks in said plant. The main tools used were: survey, interview, checklist, LEST questionnaire for the diagnosis of the current situation in terms of working conditions, the risk identification matrix and the binary method of risk assessment. The main results obtained were the identification of the risks in their different categories, observing that the critical risk factors are related to the physical overexertion, the uncomfortable postures and the manual lifting of the load. Among the important risks are falling objects, skin contact with toxic substances and mental overwork, closely related to work pressures and job security? It was possible to carry out the proposal of preventive and corrective measures in order to properly manage the risks and contribute to the safety and health of the workers.</p> Carlos Alberto Litardo Velasquez Grether Lucia Real Perez Andres Francisco Chavez Landa Rosa Mariuxi Litardo Velasquez Denis Joaquin Zambrano Ortiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-09-15 2018-09-15 2 3 1 12 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.196 Performance and carcass of local rabbit (Lepus nigricollis) fed concentrate on different levels based on carrot leaf waste (Daucus carota L.) https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/189 <p style="text-align: justify;">Research about the performance of local rabbit fed different level of concentrate based on&nbsp; &nbsp;<em>Daucus carota L</em>.was conducted for 12 weeks at Dajan Peken Village, Tabanan District, Tabanan Regency. The research design used was Randomized Block Design with 5 replicates. The animals were allocated randomly into 4 treatments i.e. control ration carrot leaf (<em>Daucus </em>&nbsp;<em>carota L</em>.) (R0), control ration with 10 g concentrate/head/day (R1), control ration with 20 g &nbsp;concentrate/head/day (R2) and control ration with 30 g concentrate/head/day (R3). &nbsp;<em>Daucus carota L</em>. and drinking water offered <em>ad libitum</em>. Results of the research showed that performance of the animals fed control ration with 30 g concentrate/head/day (R3) was higher &nbsp;(P &lt; 0.05) than that R0 (control) and other treatments. Carcass weight, meat, and fat of the animals fed ration R0 was lower (P &lt; 0.05) compare to treatment R1, R2, and R3. There was no significant difference (P &gt;0.05) to variables of carcass weight, bone weight, and meat bone ratio among R0, R1, R2, and R3 percentages. It could be concluded that the animals fed <em>Daucus carota L</em>. as basic ration that was supplemented with concentrate 30 g/head/day produced higher performance and carcass compare to the animals supplemented 20 g/head/day and 10 g/head/day.</p> I Made Nuriyasa E. Puspani W. Sayang Yupardhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-09-27 2018-09-27 2 3 13 19 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.189 Photovoltaic system implementation in baltra and puerto ayora islands https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/200 <p style="text-align: justify;">In the research, an analysis of the impact of the photovoltaic systems installed in two islands of the Galápagos archipelago is made. In this sense, a series of calculations has been used to find the significant values that have allowed us to choose the specific devices for this project. A modeling study was analyzed to quantify the total energy of the system, the number of possible modules to be installed, the amount of energy to be stored according to the type of batteries and the ampere-hour (Ah) that the regulation set must support of the electric current. The socio-economic and environmental impact of the system on Baltra Island was assessed with an example and estimations to make it explicit, the results of the surveys used are shown through which the most significant results were exposed, exposing that the photovoltaic systems in stage of implantation do not affect the environment, flora and fauna, its greatest impact is in the use of land.</p> Epeni-Tombo Genial Belvinel Guillermo Antonio Loor Julio Cesar Hernandez Chilan Maria Rodriguez Gamez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-09-28 2018-09-28 2 3 20 27 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.200 Bird pest attack and sound characteristics of bamboo traditional instruments as bird pest repellent on rice fields in Bali https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/201 <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study was to observe the attack of bird pest and examine Balinese bamboo traditional instruments, (in local language called <em>kepuakan</em>), as a repellent of bird pest. The research method used is the survey method, sample testing, or a combination of both. For bird pest attack, the survey results show that damage in rice panicles can reach 75% more. For <em>kepuakan</em>, the results of the survey and testing of the <em>kepuakan</em> samples in three rice planting centers, namely Tabanan, Badung, and Gianyar regencies, showed that <em>kepuakan</em> was made of bamboo rope (Giganlochloa apus) and <em>jajang</em> bamboo (Giganlochloa ridleyi) with various dimensions, length from 39.0-75.2 cm, diameter from 4.7-6.6 cm, thick bamboo from 0.4-0.8 cm. Sound characteristics produced by <em>kepuakan</em> are similar to knocking sound with the maximum sound pressure level varies from 101-112 dB at 10 cm distance and with frequency interval between 509-1,889 Hz with an average frequency of 1,205 Hz which is still within the range of hearing of birds. Based on the results of the characteristic test, the instrument of <em>kepuakan</em> is still feasible and safe to use as bird pest repellent on rice fields.</p> I Gde Antha Kasmawan I Wayan Supartha I Nyoman Wijaya Ida Ayu Dwi Giriantari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-02 2018-10-02 2 3 28 37 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.201 Flower growth position determines with formation of fruit-set on citrus siam plants https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/202 <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study was to find out the position of the emergence of flowers associated with the formation of fruit-set as a potential fruit on the citrus Siam plant. This study used a randomized block design with two factors observed that is flower position on the branch and flowering period. The results of the statistic data tabulation show that. The interaction between the positions of the flowering period on citrus Siam plants is not significantly different. The position of the emergence of the flower determines many fruit-set are formed. Top branch. The position of the top branch shows the percentage of fruit-set is formed more that is 97,95 %&nbsp; and the lowest in rootstock, that is 91,30. This incident was supported by more interest formed when the top branch that’s is 224,95 florets more 53,65 % if it is stretched in the lower stem position 104,27 florets. This is supported by&nbsp; relative water content, chlorophyll,&nbsp; N, P, K and sucrose leaves <em>i.e</em>. 46,78 %, 28,82 %, 1,40 %, 0,74 %, 3,42 % and 3,42 % bigger than the lower stem <em>i.e.</em> 41,36 %, 18,64 %, 1,16 %, 0,19 %, and 2,17 %.</p> Ni Putu Anom Sulistiawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-02 2018-10-02 2 3 38 47 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.202 Efforts to produce Siamese citrus fruit out of season and fruit quality improvement through application of potassium nitrate and agrodyke fertilizer https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/206 <p style="text-align: justify;">The research aimed to find out the efforts to produce off-season orange fruit and increase the quality of fruit through the application of potassium nitrate and agrodyke organic fertilizer. The study used a factorial randomized block design with 2 treatment factors. The first factor is the flower induction application using potassium nitrate (K) consisting of 3 levels, namely (K0 = 0 g/tree), (K1 = 20 g/tree), and (K2 = 40 g/tree). While the second factor is the application of agrodyke organic fertilizer (P) consisting of 4 levels, namely (P0 = 0 g / tree), (P1 = 15 g/tree), (P2 = 30 g / tree) and (P3 = 45 g/tree). There are 12 combination treatments and each of them is repeated 3 times so that 36 tree plants are needed. The results showed the interaction between potassium nitrate treatment with agrodyke organic fertilizer treatment had no significant effect on all observed variables. Potassium nitrate treatment and agrodyke organic fertilizer can significantly improve the quality of orange citrus fruit out of season physically. In the treatment of potassium nitrate 40 g/tree, the weight of the harvested fruit per tree was obtained, the weight per fruit and the highest fruit diameter were 13703.90 g; 99.92 g and 6.81 cm or an increase of 62.24%; 16.32% and 9.49% compared with no treatment of potassium nitrate which is 8446.60 g; 87, 42 g and 6.22 cm.</p> Ni Komang Alit Astiari Luh Kartini Ni Putu Anom Sulistiawati I Nyoman Rai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 2 3 48 58 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.206 Granting of several types of cash fertilizer and distribution of apical approaches to growth https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/207 <p style="text-align: justify;">The objectives of this study are for the type of manure that is most appropriate for the improvement of fertility and the generation of the period of nutrients and the best time of pruning for the growth and yield of chili. This research is a Factorial experiment, with Basic. Design of Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 2 factors that tried and done in glass house lasted from July to November 2017. In the first factor type of manure from level 4: K 0 = no fertilizer, K 1 = cow manure, K2 = chicken manure laying hens, K 3 = rabbit manure. The dose of each fertilizer 20 tons ha-1. The second factor with 3 levels: P 0 = without trimming, P 1 = pruned apical shoots age 8 days after planting, P2 = pruning apical shoots age 16 days after planting. From the experiment will be obtained 12 treatment combinations and will be repeated 3 times. The interaction between several types of manure and apical trimming (K x P) was markedly significant (P &lt;0.05) to the variable wet weight of leaves and leaf dry weight. The interaction is very important (P &lt;0.01) against the maximum leaf number variables, wet root weight, root dry weight, and fresh fruit weight. Fresh weight of fruit obtained on interaction with manure by pruning apical part 16 days after planting (K3P2) of 47.67 g and when compared to the combination of no fertilizer and without pruning (K0P0) of 37.80 which can be increased 26, 11%.</p> A.A. Ngurah Mayun Wirajaya Made Sri Yuliartini Luh Kartini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-16 2018-10-16 2 3 59 65 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.207 Treatment of 40 kHz continuous ultrasound towards blood cells of mice (Mus musculus L) https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/208 <p style="text-align: justify;">The application of ultrasound in mice has increased the activity of mice and showed anxious behavior that affects the blood cells of mice. This study aims to observe the effect of 40 kHz ultrasound exposure on the content of leukocytes and erythrocytes in blood cells of mice. For this purpose, five ultrasound treatments with sound pressure levels were 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90 dB respectively and one control in six sample groups, each consisting of five mice with the same weight and age. Sound treatment is carried out with a 40 kHz continuous ultrasound exposure of the same duration for two hours. Taking blood samples of mice is carried out as soon as the sample is given a sound treatment. Based on the results of blood tests of mice it was found that the average increase in the number of leukocyte mice varied between 40-1,070 cells/mm<sup>3</sup> for variations in sound pressure levels from 70 to 90 dB with an increase in the highest average number of leukocyte (1,070 cells/mm<sup>3</sup>) at the sound pressure level 75 dB. With the same level of sound pressure level, the decrease in the average number of erythrocytes varied between 920,000-190,000 cells/mm<sup>3</sup> with a decrease in the highest average number of erythrocytes (920,000 cells/mm<sup>3</sup>) at an 80 dB sound pressure level. The optimum level of sound pressure that can affect the average number of leukocytes and erythrocytes in blood cells of mice are still unknown.</p> I Gde Antha Kasmawan Gusti Ngurah Sutapa I Made Yuliara ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-19 2018-10-19 2 3 66 74 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.208 The changes in protein content, moisture content, and organoleptic pindang of auxis thazard due to re-boiling stored in cold temperatures https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/210 <p style="text-align: justify;">This research used descriptive method for analyzing the change of protein content, moisture content, organoleptic as a result of <em>Auxis thazard</em> boiling for many times. The result showed that there will be a dropping of protein content and moisture content of boiled fish at every time to be boiled for many times until storage for 72 hours. According to organoleptic, storage boiled fish during 72 hours starts getting a change to worse way with condition such as part of fish head with the body had already broken, part of tail had already broken, the color of fish had been increasingly pallid, the face of fish had been dry especially part of head had been very dry, the taste started to stray from delicious, the odor began to smell iron rust, texture of the fish had been rough. In the whole, the organoleptic value at the storage for 24 hours the panelist giving the value like (7.39) the storage during 48 hours’ likes (6.80) and the storage during 72 hours’ panelist giving the value more or less likes (6.22). From this research to be suggested to the Producer maximum to storage and re-boiling <em>Auxis thazard</em> only 48 hours.</p> Ni Made Darmadi Dewa Gede Semara Edi I Made Kawan Anak Agung Made Semariyani I Wayan Sudiarta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 2 3 75 85 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.210 Effect of improvement on work attitudes and work environment on decreasing occupational pain https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/209 <p style="text-align: justify;">This research is an observation conducted on the health aspects of the work of carving artists, especially ergo-mechanical implementation to reduce subjective complaints. Ergo-mechanical is a set of equipment to maintain working environment conditions to remain within the required limits, so that the carving artist remains in a safe and comfortable condition. This study begins with direct observation of the process of carving handicrafts in several centers of carving crafts in Badung, Tabanan and Gianyar Districts. In accordance with the Bali State Polytechnic research master plan, problem solving will focus on human aspects and the use of appropriate technology. This research method is experimental with the design of the same subject, involving 9 samples that carried out activities before and after treatment. Data on environmental conditions, fatigue and musculoskeletal complaints are processed with statistics at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that with ergo-mechanical implementation and ergonomic work stations, occupational health indicators such as musculoskeletal disorders and fatigue showed better data, characterized by decreased musculoskeletal disorders and reduced fatigue.</p> I Ketut Widana Ni Wayan Sumetri I Ketut Sutapa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 2 3 86 97 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.209 Fermented rice husk utilization of effective microorganisms-4 supplemented with Piper betle L. performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and meat cholesterol levels of Bali duck https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/215 <p style="text-align: justify;">This experiment was conducted to study the effect of the offered effective microorganisms-4 fermented rice husk in diets and piper betle L. supplemented on performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, meat cholesterol levels of Bali duck. Research results showed that giving rations contain fermented rice husk and supplemented betle leaf (E treatment) on feed consumption was decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05) with the treatment. Moreover, the offering treatmeat C, D and E can increase of feed antioxidant consumption were significantly different (P&lt;0.05), but with treatment B was decrase of feed antioxidant consumption (P&lt;0.04) than the treatment A. Therefore, the offering treatment C, D, and E can increased of feed digestibility, final body weight, and gain body weight were significntly different (P&lt;0.05), but offering treatment B were not significantly of feed degestibility and final body weight (P&gt;0.05) and cotrasted with offering treatment B can decreased of gain body weight , and on FCR was increased, but with treatment C, D can decrease FCR were significantly (P&lt;0.05) than the treatment A. The giving treatment B, C, D, and E can increase of&nbsp; meat quality with organoleptic methods (P&gt;0.05), but on meat quality with obyrcyive was not significantly different (P&gt;0.05) than the treatment A. The offering treatment B, C, D, and E can be increased antioxidant capacity (P&lt;0.05), but on cholesterol concentration with treatment B, and C were not significantly different (P&gt;0.05), but treatment D and E can decrease of the cholesterol cooncentration (P&lt;0.05) than the treatment A., it could be concluded that giving treatment E gave the best response on performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and meat cholesterol concentration of Bali ducks.</p> Ida Bagus Gaga Partama Tjokorda Gede Belawa Yadnya Anak Agung Ayu Sri Trisnadewi I Ketut Sukada ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-05 2018-11-05 2 3 98 110 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.215 Susceptibility to flooding in abdon calderon of canton portoviejo parish https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/220 <p style="text-align: justify;">This research was developed in the field of risk management against floods with the application of <em>Geographic Information Systems (GIS)</em> to assess the susceptibility to flooding in the central part of the Abdón Calderón parish of the Portoviejo canton where there are geographical and climatic characteristics that create favorable conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon (slopes, edaphic composition with significant presence of clay and existence of patterns of intense rainfall in the winter season. Work was proposed to determine the susceptibility to flooding to which the research area is subject through the analysis of cartographic data and the thematic maps of slope and soil with a weighting methodology of the importance of the mentioned variables according to the qualitative evaluation. Iva carried out preliminarily through observation visits and taking of reference data in situ. The result was the obtaining of a susceptibility map where the high, medium and low susceptibility level can be observed in the downtown part of the Abdón Calderón parish.</p> Arturo Andres Hernandez Escobar Diego Raul Vera Solorzano María Rodriguez Gamez ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 2 3 111 120 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.220 Analysis and design of wastewater treatment https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/221 <p style="text-align: justify;">The work proposes the reuse of wastewater from the Faculty of Agronomic Engineering of the Technical University of Manabí, located in the Lodana parish in the city of Portoviejo, to irrigate the diversity of plantations that exist in the institution as a banana, cocoa and lemon. In the work, the results of the physical-chemical and bacteriological analysis carried out on the residual water generated in the institution are offered, being able to verify that it does not meet the parameters required to be used in the irrigation of crops. The technical scheme of the proposed treatment system is shown, specifying the structure of the zeolite filter. The calculations made for the technical and structural design of each of the devices that make up the proposed treatment system are provided. The analysis of the performance of the system that is illustrated with a series of data reflected in tables is exposed and where an efficiency between 84% and 88% can be verified. A review of compliance with environmental regulations is carried out and an economic analysis is provided on the cost of the investment for the introduction of the system in the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical University of Manabí.</p> Jordan Andres P. Pinoargote Jennifer Tatiana R. Alcivar Carlos G. Villacreses Viteri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 2 3 121 135 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.221 Effect of carcass aging towards pork organoleptic quality of bali pig https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/229 <p style="text-align: justify;">The research aims were to observe the effect of carcass aging on a different time to pork organoleptic quality of Bali pig. It used Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments i.e. P0 = hot carcass without aging, P1 = carcass aging for 1 day, P2 = hot carcass aging for 2 days, P3 = carcass aging for 3 days. Pork samples for the organoleptic quality test were taken from part of <em>longgsimus</em><em> dorsi</em> (LD). Data obtained were analyzed with none parametric test of Hedonic <a href="#References">(Kruskal &amp; Wallis, 1952).</a> Variables observed were colour, aromatic, texture, taste, tenderness and overall acceptance. The research results showed that the best panel preference level to the pork colour was on the pork aging for 1 day (P1), then its decreased on day 2 and 3. Preference level of the panel to aromatic, taste, and tenderness of the pork aging for 1 to 3 days were increased significantly. The panel preference level to the pork texture aging for 1 to 3 days was not significant. Overall, the acceptance level of the pork aging for 1 day have the highest score. From data mentioned above could be concluded that the best organoleptic quality was the pork aging for 1 day.</p> Ni Luh Putu Sriyani I Gede Suarta Ni Luh Gde Sumardani Budi Rahayu Tanama Putri Wayan Sayang Yupardi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-12-11 2018-12-11 2 3 136 141 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.229 Utilization burning rice straw and crops planted https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/234 <p style="text-align: justify;">The practice of burning rice straw after harvest seems to be normal and natural. The reason was simple to speed up the processing of land to pursue the next planting season and avoid the spread of pests and diseases. Whereas, rice straw open burning, aside from disposing of fertilizer resources was also a source of carbon gas emissions that have an impact on air quality. Rice straw burning has been closely related to the crops types that will be planted next. Data collected in the study were analyzed descriptively. The collected data were tabulated and presented in the form of frequency tables and percentages. Based on the study results, it was found that the type of crops to be planted greatly influenced the farmer’s decision to burn rice straw. There were two types of plants that tend to influence the farmer’s decision to burn rice straw, namely corn, and peanuts. Burning was also conducted if the farmers will return to planting rice after harvesting rice. They believe that the burning ash of rice straw will increase production from corn and peanuts.</p> I Nengah Muliarta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 2 3 142 150 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.234 Entrepreneur community prospect of snack made from local food by balinese women https://www.sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/237 <p style="text-align: justify;">This quantitative descriptive study describes the entrepreneurship of local snacks food products made by Balinese women, which include the potential of local food for cassava and sweet potatoes, efforts to empower Balinese women in processing potential local food in their region, marketing strategies, adaptability to business activities with domestic activities, constraints in the development of food production businesses, the benefits of the business community, and the public response to local cassava and sweet potato products. The research subjects were Balinese women food entrepreneurs in the area of Buleleng which specialized in processing local cassava and sweet potato food. Research data was collected through interviews, and observations. The study found that Balinese female entrepreneurs develop food products made from local cassava and sweet potato foods, namely traditional snacks and modern snacks, sufficient quality of production, small scale businesses (home industries), using online marketing strategies (through social media), communities business has benefits and an important role for smooth and sustainable business, adaptability of entrepreneurial activities and high domestic tasks. The development of entrepreneurial snacks made from local food made from cassava and sweet potatoes has a great opportunity to develop. The community gave a positive response to snacks from cassava and sweet potatoes.</p> Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani Ketut Budi Susrusa I Dewa Putu Oka Suardi I Gede Setiawan Adi Putra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2018-12-27 2018-12-27 2 3 151 163 10.29332/ijls.v2n3.237